Victor Gruen’s 95-acre two-level Southdale Center Mall opened Oct. 8, 1956 in Edina, MN, near Minneapolis.

The first fully enclosed shopping center, with a constant climate-controlled temperature of 72 degrees, was inspired by the design of the Galleria Vittoria Emanuele designed and built by architect Giuseppe Mengoni 1865-77 in Milan, Italy.

Grandpa could be perfectly happy spending his mornings tenderly cultivating the land and his afternoons despoiling it. Thoreau, planting his bean field, said he aimed to make the earth “speak beans.” Some days, my grandfather made the earth speak¬†vegetables; other days it was shopping centers. (11)

Michael Pollan¬†Second Nature: A Gardner’s Education